Institute of Crystallography - CNR

Campi Gaetano


  • I graduated in PHYSICS (2001) at the University of Rome “La Sapienza” with the thesis “Studies of X ray Diffraction and Thermodynamics of the Polaron Ordering”, in the G4 group, under the guidance of Prof. Antonio Bianconi. In the same group I obtained my PhD in Materials Science (2005) with the thesis “Study of inhomogeneous and self-organized phases in cuprates and diborides”. During these years, I have been fascinated by the order-disorder competition  in matter on different space-time scales. In particular, I studied how this competition determines the structural and electronic properties in high temperatures superconductors by X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy experiments performed at the ELETTRA and ESRF. During my PhD, I spent a period (2001-2002) at the “Michigan State University”, (MSU, Lansing-Michigan, USA) where I studied superconducting systems and magnetic systems by high resolution neutron diffraction measurements performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL, New Mexico, USA).
  • After my PhD I worked at the Institute of Crystallography of the CNR (research grant 2005-2007) on the design, automation and control of  X-ray diffraction and fluorescence instrumentation. I participated in the realization of portable instrumentation and of the K-diffractometer in use at the XRD1 beamline of the ELETTRA synchrotron [1].
  • In 2008 I got the position of permanent researcher at the institute of Crystallography where I continued the study of superconducting systems, extending my research to different classes of complex materials, p. ex. quantum materials [2, 3], biological tissues [4] and hybrid supramolecular compounds [5]. I used scanning measurements of synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy and diffraction, together with statistical physics methods for data analysis, to obtain information on order-disorder competition at different length scales, from the atomic scale to the nanoscale and mesoscale.
  • In 2016 I was selected by the “Stephenson Distinguished Visitor Program” to spend a period at the DESY synchrotron, in Hamburg, to perform diffraction experiments using coherent X radiation, in order to visualize and study the lattice dynamics and functional disorder in some quantum materials [6 ]. Also at DESY I was a member of the panel review for “applications of coherent X radiation” from 2020 to 2022.
  • Recently, I am finding it of great interest to extend the application of the analytical methodology developed in my studies to different dynamic systems, for example to epidemiology, financial markets and biological networks [7,8].
  • References
    1. Campi, G., Cappelluti, E., Proffen, T., Qiu, X., Bozin, E. S., Billinge, S. J. L., … & Bianconi, A. (2006). Study of temperature dependent atomic correlations in MgB2. The European Physical Journal B-Condensed Matter and Complex Systems52(1), 15-21.
    2. Ciasca, G., Businaro, L., De Ninno, A., Cedola, A., Notargiacomo, A., Campi, G., … & Gerardino, A. (2013). Wet sample confinement by superhydrophobic patterned surfaces for combined X-ray fluorescence and X-ray phase contrast imaging. Microelectronic engineering111, 304-309.
    3. Lausi, A., et al. (2015). Status of the crystallography beamlines at Elettra. The European Physical Journal Plus, 130, 1-8.
    4. Campi, G., Bianconi, A., Poccia, N., Bianconi, G., Barba, L., & Ricci, A. (2015). Inhomogeneity of charge-density-wave order and quenched disorder in a high-T c superconductor. Nature, 525, 359-362.
    5. Fratini, M., Poccia, N., Ricci, A., Campi, G., Burghammer, M., Aeppli, G., & Bianconi, A. (2010). Scale-free structural organization of oxygen interstitials in La 2 CuO 4+ y. Nature, 466, 841-844.
    6. Campi, G., Di Gioacchino, M., Poccia, N., Ricci, A., Burghammer, M., Ciasca, G., & Bianconi, A. (2017). Nanoscale correlated disorder in out-of-equilibrium myelin ultrastructure. ACS nano, 12, 729-739.
    7. Cannas, C., Ardu, A., Musinu, A., Suber, L., Ciasca, G., Amenitsch, H., & Campi, G. (2015). Hierarchical formation mechanism of CoFe2O4 mesoporous assemblies. ACS nano, 9, 7277-7286.
    8. Ricci, A., Poccia, N., Campi, et al. (2021). Measurement of spin dynamics in a layered nickelate using X-Ray Photon Correlation spectroscopy: Evidence for Intrinsic destabilization of incommensurate stripes at low temperatures. Physical review letters, 127, 057001.
    9. Campi, G., & Bianconi, A. (2022). Periodic recurrent waves of Covid-19 epidemics and vaccination campaign. Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 112216.
    10. Bukreeva, I., Campi, … & Cedola, A. (2017). Quantitative 3D investigation of Neuronal network in mouse spinal cord model. Scientific reports, 7, 1-10.


  • X Ray Scattering and Diffraction
  • X Ray Spectroscopy (EXAFS-XANES)
  • X Ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy
  • Neutron Diffraction and Spectroscopy
  • Instrumentation, Control and Automation

Data analysis:

  • Statistical Physics
  • Spatial Statistics
  • Graph Theory
  • Optimization and Modelling
  • Time series

RICMASS – Rome International Center for Materials Science of Superstripes:   Antonio Bianconi,  Maria Vittoria Mazziotti

Università La Sapienza – Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma:  Naurang Lal Saini

Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma –  Dipartimento di MATEMATICA e FISICA:  Gabriele Ciasca

Università di Camerino, Scuola di Farmacia – Unità di Fisica: Andrea Perali

Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di Chimica e Scienze Geologiche:  Carla Cannas

Istituto di Struttura della Materia – ISM CNR:   Lorenza Suber,   Patrizia Imperatori, Emmanuele Cappelluti

CNR Nanotec:  Michela Fratini,  Inna Bukreeva, Alessia Cedola

Istituto per la Microelettronica e i Microsistemi – IMM CNR:   Antonio Valletta

ENEA:  Gruppo SUPERCONDUTTIVITA: Andrea Augieri,  Francesco Rizzo,  Andrea Masi, Giuseppe Celentano

INFN – Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati:  Augusto Marcelli

IFW DRESDEN – Institute for Metallic Materials: Nicola Poccia

DESY – Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron – P10 beamline: Michael Sprung

ESRF – European Synchrotron Radiation Facility – Id13 beamline: Manfred Burghammer

ELETTRA – Sincrotrone Trieste – XRD1 beamline: Luisa Barba, Giuseppe Chita – XPRESS beamline: Boby Joseph – SAXS beamline: Heinz Amenitsch

Duferco Corporate Innovation, Lugano, Switzerland – Alessandro Ricci








ELETTRA Highlights 2010
Imaging scale-free structural organisation of oxygen interstitial atoms favouring high temperature superconductivity (01/01/2010)
ESRF Highlight 2010
Controlling Complexity by X ray Illumination in Cuprates for New Quantum Devices (01/01/2012)
ELETTRA Highlights 2012
ESRF Highlight 2015
ESRF Highlights 2015
Formation mechanism of CoFe2 O4 magnetic spherical mesoporous assemblies (01/01/2016)
ELETTRA Highlights 2016
ESRF Highlights 2017
ESRF Highlights 2018
Spin fluctuations unfreeze on cooling (01/01/2021)
DESY Highlights 2021

Percolating Puddles in Rich Quantum Landscapes

Relation Between Composition and Crystalline Structure in Substituted CaKFe4As4

A. Duchenko, A. Masi, A. Augieri, L. Barba, G. Campi, G. Celentano, L. Gigli, J. R. Plaisier, N. Pompeo, F. Rizzo, F. Varsano

IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity (Online) (2023)

The Superconducting Dome in Artificial High-Tc Superlattices Tuned at the Fano-Feshbach Resonance by Quantum Design

Logvenov, Gennady and Bonmassar, Nicolas and Christiani, Georg and Campi, Gaetano and Valletta, Antonio and Bianconi, Antonio

Condensed matter (2023)

Dynamic Correlations and Disorder in the Masticatory Musculature Network

Campi, Gaetano and Ricci, Alessandro and Costa, Nicola and Genovesi, Federico and Branca, Jacopo Junio Valerio and Paternostro, Ferdinando and Della Posta, Daniele

Life (Basel) (2023)

Tensile Microstrain Fluctuations in the BaPbO Units in Superconducting BaPb1-xBixO3 by Scanning Dispersive Micro-XANES

Albertini, Ruben and Macis, Salvatore and Ivanov, Andrei A. and Menushenkov, Alexey P. and Puri, Alessandro and Monteseguro, Virginia and Joseph, Boby and Xu, Wei and Marcelli, Augusto and Giraldo-Gallo, Paula and Fisher, Ian Randal and Bianconi, Antonio and Campi, Gaetano

Condensed matter (2023)

Q-Balls in the Pseudogap Phase of Superconducting HgBa2CuO4+y

Campi G.; Barba L.; Zhigadlo N.D.; Ivanov A.A.; Menushenkov A.P.; Bianconi A.

Condensed matter (2023)

Periodic recurrent waves of Covid-19 epidemics and vaccination campaign

Campi G.; Bianconi A.

Chaos, solitons and fractals (2022)

Spin-orbit coupling controlling the superconducting dome of artificial superlattices of quantum wells

Mazziotti,Maria Vittoria and Bianconi,Antonio and Raimondi,Roberto and Campi,Gaetano and Valletta,Antonio

Journal of applied physics (online) (2022)

A multiscale tissue assessment in a rat model of mild traumatic brain injury

San Martìn Molina, Isabel and Fratini, Michela and Campi, Gaetano and Burghammer, Manfred and Grunewald, Tilman A and Salo, Raimo A and Narvaez, Omar and Aggarwal, Manisha and Tohka, Jussi and Sierra, Alejandra

Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology (2022)

Sars-Cov2 world pandemic recurrent waves controlled by variants evolution and vaccination campaign

Campi Gaetano, Perali Andrea, Marcelli Augusto, Bianconi Antonio

Scientific reports (Nature Publishing Group) (2022)

Scale-Free Distribution of Oxygen Interstitial Wires in Optimum-Doped HgBa2CuO4+y

Campi, Gaetano and Mazziotti, Maria Vittoria and Jarlborg, Thomas and Bianconi, Antonio

Condensed matter (2022)

Nanoscale inhomogeneity of charge density waves dynamics in La2-xSrxNiO4

Campi G.; Bianconi A.; Joseph B.; Mishra S.K.; Muller L.; Zozulya A.; Nugroho A.A.; Roy S.; Sprung M.; Ricci A.

Scientific reports (Nature Publishing Group) (2022)

Epidemic spreading in an expanded parameter space: the supercritical scaling laws and subcritical metastable phases

Campi, Gaetano; Valletta, Antonio; Perali, Andrea; Marcelli, Augusto; Bianconi, Antonio

Physical biology (Print) (2021)

Design of a fluorescent and clickable Ag38(SRN3)24nanocluster platform: synthesis, modeling and self-assembling

Campi G.; Suber L.; Righi G.; Primitivo L.; De Angelis M.; Caschera D.; Pilloni L.; Del Giudice A.; Palma A.; Satta M.; Fortunelli A.; Sementa L.

Nanoscale advances Online (2021)

Metastable states in plateaus and multi-wave epidemic dynamics of Covid-19 spreading in Italy

Gaetano Campi, Maria Vittoria Mazziotti, Antonio Valletta, Giampietro Ravagnan, Augusto Marcelli, Andrea Perali & Antonio Bianconi

Scientific reports (Nature Publishing Group) (2021)

Structural Fluctuations at Nanoscale in Complex Functional Materials

Campi, Gaetano

Springer proceedings in physics (2021)

Measurement of Spin Dynamics in a Layered Nickelate Using X-Ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy: Evidence for Intrinsic Destabilization of Incommensurate Stripes at Low Temperatures

Ricci, Alessandro; Poccia, Nicola; Campi, Gaetano; Mishra, Shrawan; Mueller, Leonard; Joseph, Boby; Shi, Bo; Zozulya, Alexey; Buchholz, Marcel; Trabant, Christoph; Lee, James C. T.; Viefhaus, Jens; Goedkoop, Jeroen B.; Nugroho, Agustinus Agung; Braden, Markus; Roy, Sujoy; Sprung, Michael; Schuessler-Langeheine, Christian

Physical review letters (Print) (2021)

Functional Nanoscale Phase Separation and Intertwined Order in Quantum Complex Materials

Campi, Gaetano and Bianconi, Antonio

Condensed matter (2021)

Nanoscale Phase Separation of Incommensurate and Quasi-Commensurate Spin Stripes in Low Temperature Spin Glass of La2−xSrxNiO4

Campi, Gaetano and Bianconi, Antonio and Ricci, Alessandro

Condensed matter (2021)

Recent Advances in the Label-Free Characterization of Exosomes for Cancer Liquid Biopsy: From Scattering and Spectroscopy to Nanoindentation and Nanodevices

Di Santo, Riccardo; Romano, Sabrina; Mazzini, Alberto; Jovanovic, Svetlana; Nocca, Giuseppina; Campi, Gaetano; Papi, Massimiliano; De Spirito, Marco; Di Giacinto, Flavio; Ciasca, Gabriele

Nanomaterials (Basel) (2021)

Resonant multi-gap superconductivity at room temperature near a Lifshitz topological transition in sulfur hydrides

Mazziotti, Maria Vittoria; Raimondi, Roberto; Valletta, Antonio; Campi, Gaetano; Bianconi, Antonio

Journal of applied physics (2021)